Difference between revisions of "National Socialism in Ibbenbüren"

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=== Joseph David pressing charges against Hermann Dillhoff ===
 
=== Joseph David pressing charges against Hermann Dillhoff ===
 
After the war Joseph David (born 22.07.1904 in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malsch Malsch]<ref>as ''Josef David'' in this family tree: http://www.rheineahnen.de/listdoc/juedfam/reing.htm</ref>, died 1964 in New York <ref>http://www.joycetice.com/obitcemc/frankstobit.htm; his wife Hilde (Hilda) was born on 10.02.1910 in Sögel and died 13.06.2006 in New York</ref>), formerly living in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hopsten Hopsten], wrote to the denazification committee and pressed severely charges the Ibbenbüren merchant Hermann Dillhoff. He said in the pogrom in Hopsten on November 9th to 10th in 1938 a group of 30 people devastated his house in Dorfstrasse 18 in Hopsten and threatened his wife Hilde with death if they reported that he had stolen 1000 RM, a silver cigarette case by Joseph David and jewelry. The group also destroyed the entire property of Alexander Reinigungsheim <ref>On Jakob Alexander Reinigungsheim: '' Jacob Alex. Reingeheim took on the legacy of his father. The couple remained childless and adopted the orphaned niece Hilde (Moses) Jacobs, who grew up with her husband Josef David in the house of the grandfather's village N° 18. In 1939 Jacob and Selma were passengers on the "St.Louis". The refugees on this ship were not allowed to land in any port in Latin America and eventually returned to Belgium. From there, they were deported before they found a country for emigration. Her fate is shown in the movie "The Voyage of the Damned".''; Origin: http://www.rheineahnen.de/listdoc/juedfam/reing.htm. Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyage_of_the_Damned</ref> and the Synagogue in Hopsten. Joseph David and Alexander Einigenheim were beaten with iron sticks. David lists five further perpetrators<ref>Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 85</ref>.
 
After the war Joseph David (born 22.07.1904 in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malsch Malsch]<ref>as ''Josef David'' in this family tree: http://www.rheineahnen.de/listdoc/juedfam/reing.htm</ref>, died 1964 in New York <ref>http://www.joycetice.com/obitcemc/frankstobit.htm; his wife Hilde (Hilda) was born on 10.02.1910 in Sögel and died 13.06.2006 in New York</ref>), formerly living in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hopsten Hopsten], wrote to the denazification committee and pressed severely charges the Ibbenbüren merchant Hermann Dillhoff. He said in the pogrom in Hopsten on November 9th to 10th in 1938 a group of 30 people devastated his house in Dorfstrasse 18 in Hopsten and threatened his wife Hilde with death if they reported that he had stolen 1000 RM, a silver cigarette case by Joseph David and jewelry. The group also destroyed the entire property of Alexander Reinigungsheim <ref>On Jakob Alexander Reinigungsheim: '' Jacob Alex. Reingeheim took on the legacy of his father. The couple remained childless and adopted the orphaned niece Hilde (Moses) Jacobs, who grew up with her husband Josef David in the house of the grandfather's village N° 18. In 1939 Jacob and Selma were passengers on the "St.Louis". The refugees on this ship were not allowed to land in any port in Latin America and eventually returned to Belgium. From there, they were deported before they found a country for emigration. Her fate is shown in the movie "The Voyage of the Damned".''; Origin: http://www.rheineahnen.de/listdoc/juedfam/reing.htm. Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyage_of_the_Damned</ref> and the Synagogue in Hopsten. Joseph David and Alexander Einigenheim were beaten with iron sticks. David lists five further perpetrators<ref>Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 85</ref>.
During a hearing at the 13th Police Station in Ibbenbüren on November 29th, 1949, Hermann Dillhoff did not deny being present at the incident in Hopsten but he denied taking part in any actions and could not remember anyone who was there. He had already been arrested by the English because of this incident<ref>Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 88f.</ref>.  
+
During a hearing at the 13th Police Station in Ibbenbüren on November 29th, 1949, Hermann Dillhoff did not deny being present at the incident in Hopsten but he denied taking part in any actions and could not remember anyone who was there. He had already been arrested by the English because of this incident<ref>Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 88f.</ref>. Dillhoff also said [[Anton Scheidt]] took part in the incident in Hopsten.
  
 
Detective Inspector Gattner concluded on February 21st, 1950, that the perpetrators of the pogrom in Hopsten could not be clearly identified and that the damage caused "was not proportional to other cities" <ref>Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 94</ref>.
 
Detective Inspector Gattner concluded on February 21st, 1950, that the perpetrators of the pogrom in Hopsten could not be clearly identified and that the damage caused "was not proportional to other cities" <ref>Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 94</ref>.

Revision as of 16:38, 24 November 2017

Pre-war times in Ibbenbüren

Transistion into National Socialism from the point of view of countrywomen

Alwine Dirkes from Ibbenbüren, then chairwomen of the countrywomen in the Tecklenburg district, describes the transition from the Republic of Weimar into Nationals Socialism in her diary[1].

NSDAP

Since 1928 revenue officer Otto Ehlers and Teddy Scheidt built up the local party NSDAP[2] in Ibbenbüren. Many officers of the local cole mine appreciated this. The leader of the district, Heinrich Knolle, who worked as a head miner, organized the diverse branches of the party in the distinct Tecklenburg. Ehlers mainly worked on building up the SA, which in the beginning had only 18 members.

In June 1932 he built up the Ibbenbüren SS[3]. On July 21st, 1932 an election propaganda ride of the Ibbenbüren SA led to Gronau[4]. The Ibbenbürener Amtsgericht was flagged under force by SA in March 1933[5]. The NS-Frauenschaft was founded in 1931 and had seven members at the start. In April 1935 there were 2047 members [6].

Local leader of the NSDAP in Laggenbeck and Dorfgemeinschaftshaus

In Laggenbeck building constructor und mayor of the country community, Gerhard Hohnhorst, worked as local group leaderr. On February 19th, 1936 he applied for building a Hilter-Jugend-Heim in Laggenbeck, which is today known as Dorfgemeinschaftshaus. On Februar 29th, 1937 the building was inaugurated. In 1944 the building was used for interrogating a presumed resistance gruop in Laggenbeck. On December 23rd, english soldiers organized a christmas party for 100 children there.[7]

Post war times

Joseph David pressing charges against Hermann Dillhoff

After the war Joseph David (born 22.07.1904 in Malsch[8], died 1964 in New York [9]), formerly living in Hopsten, wrote to the denazification committee and pressed severely charges the Ibbenbüren merchant Hermann Dillhoff. He said in the pogrom in Hopsten on November 9th to 10th in 1938 a group of 30 people devastated his house in Dorfstrasse 18 in Hopsten and threatened his wife Hilde with death if they reported that he had stolen 1000 RM, a silver cigarette case by Joseph David and jewelry. The group also destroyed the entire property of Alexander Reinigungsheim [10] and the Synagogue in Hopsten. Joseph David and Alexander Einigenheim were beaten with iron sticks. David lists five further perpetrators[11]. During a hearing at the 13th Police Station in Ibbenbüren on November 29th, 1949, Hermann Dillhoff did not deny being present at the incident in Hopsten but he denied taking part in any actions and could not remember anyone who was there. He had already been arrested by the English because of this incident[12]. Dillhoff also said Anton Scheidt took part in the incident in Hopsten.

Detective Inspector Gattner concluded on February 21st, 1950, that the perpetrators of the pogrom in Hopsten could not be clearly identified and that the damage caused "was not proportional to other cities" [13].

The NSDAP Kreisleiter Heinrich Knolle denied having been involved in the pogrom in Hopsten at all[14].

Refund claims

Immediately after the war compensation payments were made by the city due the instigation of the occupying powers on the basis of the "Restitution Law" after a settling in 3 cases, in which all conditions were accepted without exception[15]. This was different compared with citizens of Ibbenbüren:

Other "buyers" of aryanized real estate were not so reasonable. Especially in the early postwar period the connection between the persecution of the Jews and Aryanization was often fiercely denied. Former "Ariseurs", ie "buyers" of Jewish real estate, present themselves as victims of the time and the legal situation at that time, they referred to the Nazi system or the wartime and recected their own responsibility vehemently.[16]

Weblinks

Literature

  • Agnischock, Anja u.a.; Konflikte zwischen Nationalsozialisten und katholischer Kirche in der Zeit von 1933 bis 1938 am Beispiel der Pfarrgemeinde St. Mauritius in Ibbenbüren
  • Althoff, Gertrud: Geschichte der Juden in Olfen : Jüdisches Leben im katholischen Milieu einer Kleinstadt im Münsterland; Münster, LIT, 2000
  • Maarten Cornelis Brands, Herman Beliën, Christoph Bertram, Leven met Duitsland: opstellen over geschiedenis en politiek : aangeboden aan Maarten Brands, G.A. van Oorschot, 1998
  • Boesenberg, Lars; Düttmann, Jürgen; Ortgies, Norbert; Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Ibbenbürener Studien - Band 6, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren
  • Borries, Maria von; Euer Name lebt: zur Geschichte der Juden in der Region Bersenbrück, Rasch Verlag, 1997
  • Jarminowski, Franz; Die Synagoge in Ibbenbüren – Erinnerung an den Novemberpogrom 1938
  • Freund, Susanne; Jakobi, Franz-Josef; Johanek, Peter; Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Westfalen und Lippe, Ardey-Verlag, 2008
  • Geoffroy, René; Ungarn als Zufluchtsort und Wirkungsstätte deutschsprachiger Emigranten; Peter Lang, 2001
  • Grönitz, Heide; Fabule 20c: Geschichte einer Familie von 1945 bis 1953, Mohland, 2001
  • Klatt, Marlene; Unbequeme Vergangenheit: Antisemitismus, Judenverfolgung und Wiedergutmachung in Westfalen 1925-1965; F. Schöningh, 2009
  • Schwers, Vera; Kindheit im Nationalsozialismus aus biographischer Sicht; Münster : LIT, 2002
  • Sternheim-Peters, Eva; Habe ich denn allein gejubelt? Eine Jugend im Nationalsozialismus, Kramer, Berlin, 2012.
  • Rolf, Sebastian; Die Vertreibung der jüdischen Gemeinde Ibbenbürens (1933 - 1942)[17]
  • Rosen,Anton; Ibbenbüren von der Vorzeit bis zur Gegenwart,Verlag der Ibbenbürener Vereinsdruckerei, 1969
  • Trütken-Kirsch, Heinz-Jürgen; Der Kirchenkreis Tecklenburg in der NS-Zeit; Luther-Verlag, 1996
  • Martin Weber; Vor 75 Jahren: Pogromnacht gegen Juden in Ibbenbüren

References

  1. Helene Albers, Zwischen Hof, Haushalt und Familie: Bäuerinnen in Westfalen-Lippe, 1920-1960, Ferdinand Schöningh, 2001
  2. Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 11
  3. Anton Rosen, Ibbenbüren von der Vorzeit bis zur Gegenwart, S. 71
  4. Klein-Reesink, Andreas Edition Westfälisches Dampfboot, 1981, S. 59
  5. Hans-Eckhard Niermann, Politische Strafjustiz im Nationalsozialismus: exemplarische Bedingungen ihrer Durchsetzung und Radikalisierung im Dritten Reich, 1933-1945, S.34
  6. Anton Rosen, Ibbenbüren von der Vorzeit bis zur Gegenwart, S. 72
  7. Alfons Pelster, Magdalene Lohage, Laggenbeck. Von der Bauernschaft zum modernen Industriestandort, Heimatverein Laggenbeck (Herausgeber), Ibbenbürener Vereinsdruckerei GmbH, 1995, S. 140
  8. as Josef David in this family tree: http://www.rheineahnen.de/listdoc/juedfam/reing.htm
  9. http://www.joycetice.com/obitcemc/frankstobit.htm; his wife Hilde (Hilda) was born on 10.02.1910 in Sögel and died 13.06.2006 in New York
  10. On Jakob Alexander Reinigungsheim: Jacob Alex. Reingeheim took on the legacy of his father. The couple remained childless and adopted the orphaned niece Hilde (Moses) Jacobs, who grew up with her husband Josef David in the house of the grandfather's village N° 18. In 1939 Jacob and Selma were passengers on the "St.Louis". The refugees on this ship were not allowed to land in any port in Latin America and eventually returned to Belgium. From there, they were deported before they found a country for emigration. Her fate is shown in the movie "The Voyage of the Damned".; Origin: http://www.rheineahnen.de/listdoc/juedfam/reing.htm. Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voyage_of_the_Damned
  11. Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 85
  12. Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 88f.
  13. Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 94
  14. Lars Boesenberg, Jürgen Düttmann, Norbert Ortgies, Machtsicherung, Ausgrenzung, Verfolgung: Nationalsozialismus und Judenverfolgung in Ibbenbüren, mit einem Beitrag von Marlene Klatt und Rita Schlautmann-Overmeyer, Historischer Verein Ibbenbüren, S. 96f.
  15. http://www.kulturspeicher.net/theater_00.html
  16. Freund, Susanne; Jakobi, Franz-Josef; Johanek, Peter; Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinden in Westfalen und Lippe, Ardey-Verlag, 2008, S. 421f.
  17. http://www.stadtmuseum-ibbenbueren.de/literaturarchiv_buchlisten_1.htm